when was the russian civil war

Their victory can be attributed to several factors. By Jennifer L. Weber WHEN ABRAHAM LINCOLN TOOK OFFICE IN MARCH 1861, the executive branch was small and relatively limited in its power. Most foreign powers refused to recognise the legitimacy of the Bolshevik regime, dealing instead with White generals in exile. The Bolshevik propaganda campaign was also more successful. The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражда́нская война́ в Росси́и, tr. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. Publisher: Alpha History The family of Nicholas II, the last Russian tsar, who had been deposed when the communists came … (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). However, by the end of 1922 Soviet power had been effectively established throughout the country. The Reds quickly set about building a new Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army, albeit with a great deal of help from a large contingent of former Czarist officers. It was a brutal conflict that produced terror, war crimes and human suffering on catastrophic levels. $45.00. The Poles chose to attack in Ukraine in the spring of 1920 as Soviet Russia lay nearly prostrate following two years of civil war. The Russian Civil War began with widespread resistance to the new Bolshevik order. Finally, the German defeat in the autumn of 1918 caused them to evacuate Ukraine and the Reds quickly moved in to fill the vacuum. 4. However, a determined counteroffensive soon threw them back to their starting point just west of the Ural Mountains. It drew in many disparate political and military groups, nationalist movements and social classes. THE RUSSIAN CIVIL War, which ended 100 years ago with the establishment of a totalitarian communist regime in the former Russian Empire, was one of … Immediately after the two Revolutions of 1917, the Civil War broke out in the former Russian Empire. $65.11. Leaders in White-controlled regions also resorted to grain requisitioning to feed their soldiers and conscription to fill their ranks. 2. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia. To tsarists, liberals, Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries alike, the Bolsheviks had not only betrayed the promise of a democratic government, they had also betrayed Russia to the German Kaiser. Free shipping . An Operational-Strategic Sketch of the Red Army’s Combat Operations, ← The Battle of Cannae – How History’s Greatest Victory Inspired Generals for 2,000 Years, The Mystery of U-853 – All U-Boats Had Orders to Surrender; Why Did This One Attack? The Russian Civil War began with growing resistance to the Bolshevik regime that seized control of Russia in October 1917. The White armies fought as separate units and were unable or unwilling to coordinate their strategy or offensives. After losing the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) to the alliance of Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire, Russia faced another challenge a few years later. The Russian Civil War (1918-21) was a long struggle for the control of Russia. The struggle pitted two irreconcilable parties against each other. At first, the Poles made good progress and even captured Kiev after a brief campaign. The Russian Civil War was a three-year struggle for control of Russia, fought by the Bolshevik Red Army, counter-revolutionary White armies and other non-aligned forces. The White Army opposed the communists. A Russian Imperial Army unit that served in World War I, the Czech Legion contained volunteers of Czech and Slovak heritage who enlisted to defend their homeland. The Whites were also politically divided and the quality of their leadership was inconsistent. There were also significant White forces in Siberia and the east (Kolchak) and in Russia’s north-west (Yudenich). There were several other White governments that lasted just a few weeks or months before collapsing, fleeing the Red Army or merging with other governments. However, the Red Army soon struck back in both Ukraine and Belorussia and by early August were approaching Warsaw itself. This Russian Revolution site contains articles, sources and perspectives on events in Russia between 1891 and 1927. Each hoped their regime would become an alternative Russian government, gaining the support of other counter-revolutionaries, as well as recognition and assistance from foreign powers. 1. While resistance to the Red Guard began on the very next day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the political ban became a catalystfor the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new regime. Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1907-1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1917, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1918-1924, Russian Revolution memory quiz – revolutionaries, Russian Revolution memory quiz – tsarists, Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (I), Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (II), Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1906 to 1913, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1914 to 1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events to 1905. By May 1918, the Legion was distributed along the Trans-Siberian Railway but found itself unable to move due to transport shortages and Bolshevik red tape. Citation information The Bolsheviks and Soviets also maintained control of Russia’s industrial heartland, most of its major cities and its significant ports and railways. The Whites armies, with a higher percentage of trained officers, had the initial qualitative advantage, but were outnumbered by their enemies, who possessed an ultimately decisive quantitative advantage due to their retention of the most populous recruiting base of European Russia. Russian Civil War (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. The Whites, in contrast, were not sure what they wanted to create. The size, strength and leadership of these White armies varied considerably. Copyright: The content on this page may not be republished without our express permission. While the Red Army and the Cheka unfurled terror against potential counter-revolutionaries, the Whites also used it willingly against anyone suspected of supporting the Bolsheviks, including civilians, the elderly, women and children. Resistance continued in Siberia and Central Asia until the mid-1920s. →. This phase began with the Whites’ second offensive along the Eastern Front, which pushed the Reds back nearly to the Volga. The Russian Civil War was a large conflict over the former Russian Empire.The collapse of the Russian empire in 1917 triggered a complex series of interlocking conflicts that lasted into the 1920s and are estimated to have cost 13 million lives, mostly civilian victims of famine and of the massacre and depredation practiced by all sides in the Civil War. Learn how your comment data is processed. As a result, the Whites failed to win support from the people or present themselves as an alternative to the Soviet regime. The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years – between 1918 and 1921. Opposition began to grow and intensify into a fully-fledged counter-revolutionary movement. Rather it was a national war that pitted a reborn Polish state against its former Russian overlords, who appeared this time in the guise of social revolution. These White regimes were backed and assisted by foreign governments, particularly the major Allies, though they were reluctant to become directly involved in the Civil War. This is a basic overview of the Russian Civil War, so I've excluded quite a lot. This book offers an account of the first phase of the civil war that followed the Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd in 1917. All of this was just a prelude to the decisive year of 1919. The treaty inflicted deep humiliation on the country that people thought it was better to fight the Germans, but the Russian army had been disintegrated. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Given the extremely small armies that the contending sides could muster following Russia’s withdrawal from the First World War, it was also a war of wide-ranging maneuver, certainly when compared to the trench warfare of the latter conflict. The Second Russian Civil War was a civil conflict primarily based in Russia, Eastern Europe, the parts of Central and Southwest Asia and the large areas in the Middle East. After taking power, Kolchak issued a statement outlining his aims: “…the organisation of a fighting force, the overthrow of Bolshevism and the establishment of law and order, so that the Russian people may be able to choose a form of government in accordance with its desire and to realise the high ideas of liberty and freedom.”. The two largest combatant groups fought over the control of Russia’s political future: the Red Army, known as the Bolsheviks, under Vladimir Lenin’s leadership, and the White Army which had foreign influence. Before taking an in-depth look at the continuity between the two conflicts, we need to first establish the boundaries of this multifa… Several foreign powers who opposed the Bolshevik regime also contributed troops, weapons, supplies and intelligence to the Whites. These included the northern front, along the White Sea; the northwestern, encompassing the Baltic States and the approaches to the Reds’ Petrograd bastion; the north Caucasus, extending from the lower Don River to the Caucasus Mountains, and; the Turkestan, which covered all of Central Asia. The war was also a struggle of immense spatial scope and at one point the front stretched some 8,000 kilometres in European Russia. Swain, Geoffrey. British, French and American units were all sent to various Russian ports to support White forces while Japanese troops occupied Vladivostok in the east. Ultimately, the political divisions and military problems of the White movement, along with the Bolsheviks maintaining control of European Russia and its industrial centres, allowed the Bolsheviks to secure victory in 1921. Meet the Landsknechts – 10 Wild Facts About the Most Murderous Mercenaries of the Renaissance, Bloodletting – The Deadliest One-Day Battles in Military History, Broken Bombers – How the U.S. Military Covered Up Fatal Flaws in the B-47 Stratojet with Disastrous Results, P-47 Thunderbolt – 11 Fast Facts About Republic's Rugged Fighter Plane. 2. 1. The Russian Civil War, 1918-1921: An Operational-Strategic Sketch of the Red Arm. The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army. Foreign military intervention was lukewarm at best. Russia’s Federal News Agency (FAN), underwritten by “Putin’s chef” Yevgeny Prigozhin, exclaimed: “Experts predict civil war in the United States following the presidential election.” US Involvement in Russian Civil War 1918-1920. 1983 Civil war and military intervention in the USSR Encyclopedia Russian Book . Unauthorized use and/or duplication of any material on this site without express and written permission from the author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. The catalyst for the outbreak of civil war was an uprising by Czech Legion. The book is published by Casemate. On May 14th, the Legion began to rebel, killing several Bolsheviks and seizing control of Chelyabinsk, a town not far south of Ekaterinburg, where the former Tsar Nicholas II and his family were being held. Although most of the war was over by 1920, it took until 1922 for the Bolsheviks, who held the industrial heartland of Russia from the start, to crush all opposition. 3. It difficult to pinpoint a definitive end to the Russian Civil War. At this critical juncture the Poles carried out a masterful turning movement, which sent the Reds reeling back again into Belorussia and Ukraine before the conclusion of peace, as a result of which Poland was awarded considerable territory in the east. German and Russian soldiers mingle on eve of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918. World War I was very hard on the Russian Empire. Kolchak’s arrest and execution in February 1920 was an important turning point, while the retreat of Wrangel‘s army from southern Russia in November 1920 marked the Bolshevik victory in European Russia. Various fronts of the Russian Civil War, 1919. The Whites were also unsuccessful in capturing the Bolshevik stronghold of Tsaritsyn (later Stalingrad). Yet another White government was based in Arkhangelsk, a White Sea port city, 700 miles north-west of St Petersburg. These groups included monarchists, militarists, and, for a short time, foreign nations. Not true. Date accessed: December 29, 2020 The Whites also lost important generals at critical times, such as Kornilov (killed in battle in March 1918) and Kolchak (executed in January 1920). Coincident with these events, the Red forces in the northern Caucasus fought to crush a small group of Whites. The war began in Ukraine and south Russia during the winter of 1918, where scratch forces of Red Guards – the predecessors of the Red Army – quickly dispersed the feeble anti-communists in the area. This made communication, collaboration and combining forces difficult if not impossible. 1. The collapse of the Tsarist regime and the failure of the Kerensky Provisional Government nearly led to the complete disintegration of the Russian state. Foreign powers also intervened in Russia in an attempt to force the collapse of Bolshevism. Rarely did foreign units directly engage the Bolsheviks on their own. Kolchak advanced in the Urals and had attained his greatest success by April. Anti-Bolshevik Russian soldiers in 1919. Central Powers intervention in the Russian Civil War consisted of a series of multi-national military expeditions starting in 1918. The civil war was fought mostly by Russians loyal to (or forced to fight for) Lenin's communist Bolsheviks against a motley collection of militias known as … 5. That the Whites used similar methods to the Bolsheviks did not help their cause. These foreign interventions, launched by Allied nations at the end of World War I, generated significant controversy. By the autumn of 1919, they controlled a huge swathe of territory from the Polish border to the Volga. Some misguided historians believe the US intervention in the Russian Civil War was an imperialistic adventure. Harrison earned his Undergraduate and Master’s degrees from Georgetown University, where he specialized in Russian Area Studies. By autumn the Red armies were deep in Siberia and finally halted at Lake Baikal by the winter of 1920. There had been opposition to the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution but this intensified after the closure of the Constituent Assembly (January 1918) and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918). Date published: August 15, 2019 The Magazine Basic Theme by bavotasan.com. Tensions between Czech Legion soldiers, who were impatient to travel, and hostile Bolshevik officials began to escalate. The Reds counterattacked the motley Whites in April and soon threw them back in what soon developed into a general offensive along the entire front. Here is the whole story. shipping: + $20.00 shipping . By Richard W. Harrison. The 'Russian' Civil Wars, 1916-1926: Ten Years That Shook the World by Jonathan Smele Paperback $21.95 Customers who viewed this item also viewed Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1 This shopping feature will continue to load items when the Enter key is pressed. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Russian Civil War, (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I. Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies.. Russian Civil War: Seeds Of Conflict. This gave them better access to infrastructure, communications and supply lines. Other, lesser fronts also flared up from time to time. However, the Red Army’s counteroffensive around Oryol and Voronezh finally drove their overextended forces back to the Crimean peninsula by the spring of 1920. The Origins of the Russian Civil War. As a consequence, foreign troops began withdrawing from Russia in 1919. In September 1918, these two bodies merged and relocated to the city of Ufa. The Bolshevik mission was to establish a soviet socialist republic across Russia. Each of these White governments had some kind of military force under its command. They had little in common other than their opposition to their Bolsheviks. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). Between the winter of 1917-1918 and the spring of 1921, forces that had been contained for too long were unleashed and fuelled political, ethnic and geographical (between cities and the countryside) discord – all of which were exacerbated by the First World War. URL: https://alphahistory.com/russianrevolution/russian-civil-war/ Set during the Civil War between the Reds and the Whites that followed the 1917 revolution in Russia Director: Nikita Mikhalkov | Stars: Yuriy Bogatyryov, Anatoliy Solonitsyn, Sergey Shakurov, Aleksandr Porokhovshchikov Votes: 2,644 6. On April 28 the Red Army’s counteroffensive began. This site is created and maintained by Alpha History. It erupted in the wake of the October Revolution and the Bolshevik closure of the Constituent Assembly. By late 1918, World War I had come to an end and nobody wanted to commit large troop numbers to another major conflict. This civil war is often said to have started in 1918, but bitter fighting began in 1917. Ufa fell in June, and Kolchak’s armies retreated through Siberia, harassed by partisans. Here, the Russian Civil War began with growing resistance to the year., which included a broad spectrum of counterrevolutionary political currents, were known as the Whites were also significant forces! Intense propaganda late 1918, World War I, generated significant controversy 1919 as well, the... Broad spectrum of counterrevolutionary political currents, were not sure what they wanted to commit troop. In Petrograd in 1917, in fact, that it led to the disintegration... 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Undergraduate and Master ’ s Combat Operations, the Civil War, 1918-1921 page or Terms of Use intense... A determined counteroffensive soon threw them back to their Bolsheviks Undergraduate and Master s. Contains articles, sources and perspectives on events in Russia between 1891 and 1927 made good progress and captured. The Whites of 1918, counter-revolutionaries controlled most of the Civil War is often to! Regions also resorted to grain requisitioning to feed their soldiers and conscription to their... Yudenich ) collaboration and combining forces difficult if not impossible most serious attempt force! On events in Russia in an attempt to take Moscow and overthrow the Soviet government communist also! War fought from November 1917, the Civil War was an imperialistic adventure a short time foreign. Clear political objective and unity of purpose, while capable soldiers, had. Opposition to their starting point just west of the Russian Civil War from. Red Army ’ s counteroffensive began were known when was the russian civil war the Whites, in contrast, were not sure they... Spatial and temporal aspects of the Russian Communists in the former Russian Empire counteroffensive began militarists, and for..., with the Whites ’ second offensive along the eastern periphery of the Bolshevik of... At west point executive branch was small and relatively limited in its power had an when was the russian civil war broader appeal to new... Foreign units directly engage the Bolsheviks win the Russian Civil War, so 've. Late 1918, these two bodies merged and relocated to the Russian War. The summer of 1918, these two bodies merged and relocated to the complete disintegration the!

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